Potentials of Democratic Education in Turkey and Germany

The Nippes Museum Collection “Ankara / Cologne“

The question of democratic education arises continuously and is taking on new dimensions in all countries that have to deal with international performance assessments such as PISA, as well as with the requirements of a global management of national educational reforms introduced by the OECD, the World Bank, the WTO and the EU.

Likewise, in Germany and Turkey education policy is subject to an ongoing debate. This debate involves applied pedagogy, teacher training, study regulations and the local infrastructure of day care, youth welfare, day school and inclusive education. The following introduction outlines this matter by presenting a collection of portraits of students and professionals from Germany and Turkey and by discussing several relevant topics found in the collection. The exhibits show drawings and corresponding narratives that provide a deeper understanding of the image of school in Turkey and Germany.

In workshops held in Cologne and Ankara participants were able to produce drawings and narrate about their chosen topics. The resulting exhibits give an impression of the history as well as showing new developments of education policy from the viewpoint of the actual actors. The drawings challenge stereotypical images of both countries, their school systems, education, youth and migration. The shift in perspective towards actual life situations and professions serves as a means to deduce qualitative criteria for an international comparison. These criteria are drawn from the narratives and feedbacks as well as from cooperating with groups of students and teachers in a process of evaluating and comparing the findings.

The Collection “Ankara 1996 – 2016”

An initial collection depicting school and education in Ankara was put together in 1996, shortly before the extension of compulsory education in Turkey from five to eight years. 220 portraits of pupils from five different Turkish schools, interviews with teachers and members of the Turkish Teachers’ Union as well as of the teacher’s association Eǧit-der, and photographs showing the history of the Turkish Village Institutes provided by the Education Museum in Ankara create awareness for a Turkish tradition of progressive and democratic education and teacher training – a fact which often attracts less attention in Germany today. At that time, social and political differentiation, the continuity of the Kemalism and the concurrency of up-to-date topics on youth and environment already contradicted the prevalent image of a cultural difference in social practice and led to misunderstandings concerning the perception of children who grew up in Germany. A comparison of the pupils’ and professionals’ work orientation served as useful heuristics for an international comparison.

The collection of new exhibits in Ankara started in 2012 after the introduction of the twelve year compulsory education in Turkey. 120 drawings with corresponding interviews of pupils as well as impressions from group discussions of professionals tell stories of expanding preschools and vocational colleges, of social stratification and the increasing educational advancement of girls, but also of an understanding of success according to or contrary to international standards. Since the beginning of the school year 2014/15 the collection has been continued by way of conducting similar workshops with groups of pupils from Cologne schools. Thus, a growing number of exhibits from different types of schools (Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium, Gesamtschule, Berufsschule) has been added to the collection. An international comparison examines not only different life situations but also unexpected similarities and political as well as sociological convergence.

A special thanks goes to the 300 pupils and professionals from 13 schools in Cologne and Ankara for contributing to the new collection, as well as to the Consulate General Köln-Hürth and the Turkish Ministry of National Education, who authorized drawing and interview workshops in Ankara and facilitated the contact with cooperation partners. The research in Ankara was promoted by a program of the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth funding academic exchange of professionals. The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees supported a similar project in Cologne. It included several workshops and the compilation of the collection as well as the visitor’s guide funded by the European Integration Fund. Two qualified teachers from Cologne, Birsen Akdemir and Abdullah Atilgan, took part in the excursion and conducted the interviews in Ankara together with the team. Commissioned by the supervisory school authority in Ankara, Nurittin Yildiran, a teacher of German who knows his way around Ankara and who had already been part of a similar project 20 years ago, supported the new project as well.


Wolfgang Zaschke

Potentiale einer demokratischen Schule in der Türkei und in
Deutschland. Internationale Bildungssteuerung im Kontext
generativer Themen von Schülern und Lehrkräften
/[Fluchtpunkt Wohlfahrtsstaat: Einführung und Katalog] 

Democratic Education in Turkey and Germany. Global Prospects of
Educational Government in the View of Students and Teachers

/[Common Perspectives on Education in the Welfare State: Essay
and Catalogue]

/Wolfgang Zaschke

Köln: Nippes Museum, 2017

ISBN 978-3-9808826-4-4

© 2017 Jugendhilfe und Schule e.V.

Nippes Museum Köln – Träger: Jugendhilfe und Schule e.V. Kempener

Str. 95 – 50733 Köln

Das Museum

Essay-pdf: Subject: Governance


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